ISSN   1004-0595

CN  62-1095/O4

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张瑞, 张弘, 柴利强, 王鹏. 磁约束聚变堆中的润滑研究[J]. 摩擦学学报, 2023, 44(0): 1−16. doi: 10.16078/j.tribology.2023003
引用本文: 张瑞, 张弘, 柴利强, 王鹏. 磁约束聚变堆中的润滑研究[J]. 摩擦学学报, 2023, 44(0): 1−16. doi: 10.16078/j.tribology.2023003
ZHANG Rui, ZHANG Hong, CHAI Liqiang, WANG Peng. Lubrication in Magnetically Confined Fusion Reactors[J]. Tribology, 2023, 44 (0): 1−16. doi: 10.16078/j.tribology.2023003
Citation: ZHANG Rui, ZHANG Hong, CHAI Liqiang, WANG Peng. Lubrication in Magnetically Confined Fusion Reactors[J]. Tribology, 2023, 44 (0): 1−16. doi: 10.16078/j.tribology.2023003

磁约束聚变堆中的润滑研究

Lubrication in Magnetically Confined Fusion Reactors

  • 摘要: 核聚变反应可以提供近乎无限的能源,且是1种安全清洁的方式. 磁约束核聚变通过强磁场约束高温高密度氘氚等离子体放电发生聚变反应产生能源,其装备结构复杂且服役环境恶劣. 服役于磁约束聚变装置中的活动部件使用的润滑材料不仅面临着摩擦磨损还要承受聚变装置高低温、真空以及辐射环境. 本文中系统地总结了磁约束聚变装置发展过程中真空室、超导磁场、离子回旋加热系统和遥操作系统等各个部件面临的润滑挑战以及解决方案,并对未来商用磁约束聚变堆所需润滑材料与技术进行了展望.

     

    Abstract: With the development of socially productive forces and the continuous progress of science and technology, the scope of human utilization of energy is constantly expanding, and the position of energy in life is becoming more and more important. At present, the reserves of fossil energy on the earth can only be used by mankind for another 100 to 200 years, so it is a very urgent strategic task for all mankind to explore new energy and realize energy transformation. It was not until the 1950s that nuclear reaction power plants, which provides new energy in the form of nuclear reaction, appeared on the world energy stage. After decades of development, China, as the country with the fastest growth in nuclear power generation, has put forward higher requirements for the safety technology and economic indicators of nuclear reactors. Nuclear fusion is a reliable way to sustainable energy development in the future by providing almost unlimited energy from very small amounts of fuel in a clean and safe way. Magnetic confinement nuclear fusion produces clean energy by confining high-temperature and high-density deuterium-tritium plasma discharge with a strong magnetic field. In the installation, equipment operation and maintenance are involved in the lubrication of parts. Considering the operating environment of the device, the lubricating materials used in the moving parts of the magnetic confinement fusion device not only face cyclic stress, friction, and wear but also withstand heavy load, high and low temperature alternating, high vacuum and strong and diversified radiation environment (high energy, high flux neutrons and high-density plasma, etc.) during the operation of the fusion device. Irradiation of high-energy particles causes spot defects such as vacancy and gap atoms to form inside the service lubrication materials. Under the action of the temperature field and stress field, defect clusters are aggregated to form dislocation, cavity and amorphous transformation inside the materials, leading to material embrittlement, failure and other performance degradation. These problems will affect the service safety of nuclear power reactor equipment and are the key technical problems of the system. Therefore, it is very important to understand and master the selection and service behavior of lubricating materials in the harsh nuclear environment to improve the ability of lubricating materials to resist radiation damage. For the design of nuclear energy systems, it is to ensure the safe, stable operation and later maintenance of the whole device. In this paper, the lubrication challenges and solutions of various components such as vacuum chamber, superconducting magnetic field, ion cyclotron heating system, and teleoperating system during the development of magnetic confinement fusion devices were systematically summarized, and the lubrication materials and technologies required for commercial magnetic confinement fusion reactors in the future were prospected.

     

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