ISSN   1004-0595

CN  62-1095/O4

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孙军辉, 张鑫, 张金璐, 葛蒲宇, 程子文, 蒲吉斌, 鲁志斌, 钱林茂. 微纳尺度固体超滑研究进展[J]. 摩擦学学报, 2024, 44(4): 1−23. doi: 10.16078/j.tribology.2023011
引用本文: 孙军辉, 张鑫, 张金璐, 葛蒲宇, 程子文, 蒲吉斌, 鲁志斌, 钱林茂. 微纳尺度固体超滑研究进展[J]. 摩擦学学报, 2024, 44(4): 1−23. doi: 10.16078/j.tribology.2023011
SUN Junhui, ZHANG Xin, ZHANG Jinlu, GE Puyu, CHENG Ziwen, PU Jibin, LU Zhibin, QIAN Linmao. Current Development of Solid Superlubricity at the Microscale[J]. Tribology, 2024, 44(4): 1−23. doi: 10.16078/j.tribology.2023011
Citation: SUN Junhui, ZHANG Xin, ZHANG Jinlu, GE Puyu, CHENG Ziwen, PU Jibin, LU Zhibin, QIAN Linmao. Current Development of Solid Superlubricity at the Microscale[J]. Tribology, 2024, 44(4): 1−23. doi: 10.16078/j.tribology.2023011

微纳尺度固体超滑研究进展

Current Development of Solid Superlubricity at the Microscale

  • 摘要: 超润滑,指摩擦阻力极低的状态,是润滑技术发展追求的终极目标. 超滑能够大幅度减小甚至消除滑动界面的摩擦磨损、抑制摩擦能量耗散,有效延长运动部件的可靠性和服役寿命,具有重要的基础研究和工程应用价值. 鉴于微纳尺度固体超滑是实现宏观工程超滑的基础,是可能解决现代制造业超精密、微型化发展面临严重摩擦磨损瓶颈问题的有效途径,因此有必要对学术界目前实现微纳尺度固体超滑的原理和典型方法进行探讨,深化认识固体超滑的实现策略,提高摩擦学研究服务现代文明的支撑能力. 从早期的生活生产经验总结,到近代的机械啮合理论、黏着学说乃至当代原子分子水平摩擦理论,人们对摩擦和润滑的认识不断提高,但都不曾回避“摩擦总是伴随着动能/机械能消耗”的观点,即摩擦是界面滑动发生能量耗散的力学体现,滑动势垒的存在是滑动产生摩擦阻力的本征原因. 因此,本文中将围绕如何降低滑动势垒、减小摩擦耗散的思辨理念,介绍当前固体超滑研究的发展和现状,着重探讨实现微纳尺度超滑的一般策略,简要综述学术界目前典型固体超润滑的原理和方法等. 首先,介绍了结构超滑的提出、发展及其应用;其次,探讨了连续滑动超低摩擦行为的基础原理及应用等;此外,阐述了近年来提出的压力诱导超滑的理念,着重从现象发现、基本原理、试验观测方法及其可能的基础和应用价值等方面,介绍了压力诱导超滑的研究进展. 最后,从基础研究和应用技术开发方面提出了超滑研究可能需要加强的几方面内容. 以期通过当前综述,丰富学术界对超润滑的基本问题、科学意义及其应用价值的认识,阐明固体超滑的微观机理、实现策略,指出固体超滑面临的挑战及发展方向,助力固体超润滑从基础研究向工程应用迈进.

     

    Abstract: Superlubricity, which refers to a state of extremely low frictional resistance, is the ultimate goal pursued by the development of lubrication technology. It can significantly reduce and even eliminate the wear at sliding interfaces and inhibit the energy dissipation induced by friction, effectively extending the life of moving components. The studies of superlubricity are thus of both fundamental and engineering importance, as the frontier of tribology. On the one hand, all frictional dissipation and wear are macroscopic manifestations of microscopic frictional actions at the sliding interfaces, so the understanding and realization of superlubricity at micro/nano-scale is the basis to restrain or even eliminate friction dissipation and wear failure at macroscopic scale. On the other hand, with the continuous improvements in manufacturing and processing technologies, miniaturisation and miniaturisation have led to an increase in the specific surface area of moving parts, which makes ultra-precision mechanical equipment and electronic devices face a more severe challenge of microscopic frictional wear and tear. Hence the understanding and realization of superlubricity at micro/nano-scale is also driven by the development of modern manufacturing miniaturization and nanotechnology revolution. From the early experience summaries of life and production and the classical Amonton’s law, to the modern doctrines of interface adhesion and mechanical engagement, to current tribological theory at the atomic or molecular scale, the understandings of friction have always improved with the progresses of science and technology. Although these understandings of friction vary from one period to another, it has never avoided the view that all frictional behaviors are always accompanied by kinetic or mechanical energy consumption, i.e., friction is the mechanical manifestation of the energy dissipation occurring in interface sliding. Precisely, the existence of sliding energy barriers is the intrinsic cause of friction. In view of this, this paper will focus on the idea on how to reduce the sliding potential barriers and reduce frictional dissipation, introduce the development and status quo of mainstream theories of solid superlubricity, discuss the general strategy for achieving micro-nano-scale solid superlubricity, and review the principles and methods of typical solid superlubricity in academia, etc. Firstly, the proposal, development and applications of structural superlubricity are introduced; secondly, the underlying principles and applications of continuous sliding ultra-low friction behaviors are also discussed; in additions, the concept of pressure-induced superlubricity proposed by the author's team in recent years is described, focusing on the research progress of pressure-induced superlubricity in terms of phenomenological discovery, basic principles, experimental observation methods and its possible foundations and applications. Finally, several aspects of superlubricity research that may need to be strengthened are proposed. It is hoped to enrich the academic community's understanding of the fundamental issues, scientific significance and its application value, elucidate the microscopic mechanism and realization strategy, point out the challenges and development direction of solid superlubricity, and make the studies of solid superlubricity moving forward from fundamental science to engineering applications through our current review.

     

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